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Note #1: Click on the link below to learn more about ancient Babylonian coins:
Note #2: e.g. = for example
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Note #3: i.e. = in other words. The writer uses “i.e.” in a definition of “fiat money.” “Fiat money” means paper currency.
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Note #4: “the jury is still out” is an idiom that means “people have not yet come to an agreement.” The idiom refers to court cases, where the jury goes “out” of the courtroom to discuss the case in a separate room, and then comes back into the courtroom to announce their decision. In that situation, “the jury is still out” means that the jury has not made a decision about the case yet.