14. Nouns, Noun Phrases and Noun Clauses

I. English nouns serve four possible functions.


A. The subject of a sentence and a verb:


            The teacher is reviewing today.


B. The object of a verb:


            The teacher is reviewing nouns today.


C. The object of a preposition, or an indirect object, which is really the same thing:


            The teacher is reviewing for the first 

             few weeks of the course.

            The teacher gave four papers (to) me.


D. The complement of a linking verb.


            The class next door is Grammar 4.


II. A noun can combine with adjectives, adjective phrases and adjective clauses to form noun phrases, which can play all the same roles in a sentence as a noun:


            A. The teacher is reviewing for the first few


                (noun + adjectives=the object of a preposition)


            B. Mr. Crump is the teacher of the class next


                (noun + adjective phrase=complement)


            C. The pen that fell on the floor is mine.

                (noun + adjective clause=subject)


III. Remember that you can make a verb into a noun by adding -ing. This is called a gerund:


            A. Text messaging while driving is dangerous.


            B. I don’t recommend taking English 1A until

                you have taken Writing 6


IV. A noun clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that serves one of the functions of a noun in a sentence:


            A. I think that this class is very difficult.

                (The noun clause is a direct  object.)


            B. Why he would do a thing like that is

                something I will never understand.

               (The noun clause is the subject of the sentence.)


            C. This article is about how the real estate crisis

                 contributed to the financial crisis.

                 (The noun clause is the object of a preposition.)


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