04. Summary of Connecting Words

SUMMARY OF CONNECTING WORDS 

Conjunctions (= Coordinating Conjunctions = FANBOYS)

Adverbial Expressions (= subordinators, subordinating conjunctions)

Logical Connectors (= Adverbial Conjunction)

Prepositions

Adverbs

Function in a sentence

Used to combine two complete sentences, forming a compound sentence

Used to introduce an adverbial clause, forming a complex sentence

Used to show a logical connection between two sentences.

Used to introduce a prepositional phrase: always followed by a noun phrase

Used to provide more information about a verb

Addition

and

 

 

also, in addition, moreover, furthermore

as well as

also 

Contrast/concession

but, yet

although, though, even though, while, in spite of the fact that

however, nevertheless, on the other hand

in spite of

despite

while

still

Choice or alternative

or, nor

 

 

otherwise

 

 

Result/purpose

so

so (that)

(in order) that

therefore, thus, accordingly, as a result, for this reason, consequently

 


Restatement 

 

 

 

 

in short, in effect, in other words

 


Restatement to intensify

 

 

in fact, indeed,

as a matter of fact,

indeed

 

Cause

for

because, since

 

 

because of

due to

 

Condition

 

 

if, even if unless, as long as, provided (that)

 

 

 

Time

 

 

when, whenever, before, after, since, as, while, until

 

 

until, during, before, after, since

 

Manner

 

 

as if, as though

 

 

like

 

Place

 

where, wherever

 

 

 

PUNCTUATION/GRAMMAR RULES Comma before the conjunction to separate clauses that are complete sentences with subject and verb.

Examples:

(1)He was tired, so  he went to bed. (2) We  had already seen the movie, so we knew what was going to happen at the end.
No comma if the conjunction does not separate two sentences. Example: He was tired and went to bed.

None used when the main clause comes first in the sentence. If the dependent clause comes first, it must be followed by a comma.

Examples:

(1) He went to bed because he was tired. (2) Because he was tired, he went to bed. 

The logical connector either begins a new sentence or follows a semi-colon. The logical connector is followed by a comma. 

Examples:

(1)He was tired. Therefore, he went to bed. (2) He was tired; therefore, he went to bed.

Preposition + noun phrase or gerund:

Examples:

He went to bed because of being tired.  OR He went to bed due to fatigue.

After verb “to be.” Example:She isn’t home yet. She is still at work.

Before other verbs. Example:

He finished his homework, and he also studied the next chapter.

Five ways to express the same idea: He left the house early, but he missed the meeting. He missed the meeting in spite of the fact that he left the house early. He left the house early; however, he missed the meeting. In spite of leaving the house early, he missed the meeting. He left the house early. He still missed the meeting 

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